God made a covenant with man first, when after the flood, He vowed Noah and his sons not to destroy the Earth by flood anymore. The memory of this is the phenomenon of the rainbow. (Gen 9)
The second time was when He made a covenant with Abram in the land of Canaan, who was blessed to possess the promised land (Canaan) and to be the father of many nations then took the covenant of circumcision when Abram’s name was changed to Abraham. (Gen 12:7; 13:14-17; 15:18; Gen17)
The third covenant is the Ten Commandments. God revealed it to Moses on the Horeb of Sinai. This occurred when three months after the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt, crossing the Red Sea, the Jews arrived into the wilderness of Sinai. (Exod 20: 2-17)
I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth:
Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;
And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.
Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.
Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work:
But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates:
For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.
Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
Thou shalt not kill.
Thou shalt not commit adultery.
Thou shalt not steal.
Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.
Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.
The following one was the priestly covenant with Aaron (covenant of salt), and the covenant with Levi (Levitical priesthood). The tribe of Levi did not receive a separate area while occupying Canaan but his inheritance was that the other tribes paid tithe (tenth) to him (Num 18).
God's covenant with Phinehas (grandson of Aaron) was the result of Phinehas’s deed for Israel infidelity (Num 25).
Then, in the land of Moab, God confirm His Horeb covenant with Israel (Deut 29).
He makes a covenant with David as well: He builds up his throne to all generations (Psalms 89:4-5; 132:11-12). /Jesus Christ is his seed according to the flesh. Matt1-17; 22:42; Romans 1:3/
God reveals through the prophet Jeremiah: instead of the formal compliance of the external law, the law written in the heart is the true knowledge of God, foreshadowing His New Covenant.
... The days come, saith the Lord, that I will make make a new covenant ... I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people. And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them ... (Jer 31:31, 33-34)
(see further Rom 2:29)
And Jesus Christ reaffirming, completing the Moses law (Matt 5:17, Luk 1:69, 72) concludes His New Testament. In the last supper He declares, this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins (Matt 26:28, Mark 14:24, Luk 22:20), then He sacrifices Himself ... by his own blood, he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us (Heb 9:12).